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Neuropharmacology and Neurochemistry

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Which of the following substances is not an amino acid or biogenic amine neurotransmitter?

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(A) Dopamine

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(B) Acetylcholine

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(C) Histamine

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(D) Glycine

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(E) Epinephrine

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(B) A substrate is accepted as a neurotransmitter when it is present in the presynaptic terminal, synthesized by neurons, and released in amounts sufficient to exert an effect on the postsynaptic neurons or effector organ, mimics its endogenous action when given exogenously, and has a specific mechanism for its removal from the site of action. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters include dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and histamine. Amino acid neurotransmitters include GABA, glycine, and glutamate. Acetylcholine is the only accepted low-molecular-weight amine transmitter that is not an amino acid or derived directly from one. (Kandell, 280)

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Which of the following drugs blocks the transport of acetylcholine into vesicles?

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(A) Curare

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(B) Soman

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(C) Dimethylphenyl piperazinium

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(D) Oxotemorine

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(E) Vesamicol

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(E) Acetylcholine is synthesized from the combination of Acetyl CoA and choline in a reaction catalyzed by a choline acetyltransferase. Acetylcholine is then transported in vesicles into the cholinergic synapse. This transport can be blocked by vesamicol and induces the depletion of acetylcholine from the cholinergic vesicle. (Cooper, 151–177)

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Which of the following drugs promotes the release of acetylcholine from vesicles?

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(A) Atropine

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(B) Physostigmine

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(C) Hemicolinium-3

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(D) Botulinum toxin

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(E) Beta-bungarotoxin

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(E) The release of acetylcholine in the cholinergic synapse is promoted by ß-bungarotoxin, a form of bungarotoxin that is fairly common in some snake venom. The target of this neurotoxin is the presynaptic terminal, where—by binding to proteins, most commonly actin—it causes release of acetylcholine and subsequent exhaustion of acetylcholine stores in the nerve terminal. (Cooper, 151–177)

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Which of the following drugs blocks the release of acetylcholine from vesicles?

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(A) Atropine

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(B) Physostigmine

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(C) Hemicolinium-3

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(D) Botulinum toxin

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(E) Beta-bungarotoxin

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(D) The release of acetylcholine at the cholinergic ...

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