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Chapter 14: The Basal Ganglia

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The output nuclei of the basal ganglia send projections to the diencephalon and brain stem. Which of the following lists two output nuclei of the basal ganglia?

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A. Globus pallidus internal, globus pallidus external

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B. Caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens

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C. Substantia nigra par reticulata, substantia nigra pars compacta

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D. Globus pallidus internal, substantia nigra par reticulata

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Which of the following lists components of the same functional loop of the basal ganglia?

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A. Frontal eye fields, body of caudate nucleus, ventral pallidum, ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus

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B. Orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus

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C. Primary motor cortex, putamen, globus pallidus internal segment, medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus

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D. Hippocampus, ventral striatum, globus pallidus internal segment, ventral lateral nucleus

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Which of the following describes the action of dopamine on striatal neurons of the direct and indirect paths?

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A. Facilitates activity, suppresses activity

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B. Facilitates activity, no effect on activity

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C. Suppresses activity, facilitates activity

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D. No effect on activity, facilitates activity

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Comment: In Parkinson's disease, the loss of dopamine results in less drive to the direct path, and bradykinesia results.

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A person has a small stroke that interrupts axons of the ansa lenticularis. This stroke would produce retrograde degeneration of neurons in which of the following structures?

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A. Substantia nigra pars compacta

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B. Globus pallidus external segment

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C. Globus pallidus internal segment

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D. Subthalamic nucleus

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Comment: The lenticular fasciculus contains axons from the internal segment of the globus pallidus, not the substantial nigra pars reticulata.

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Midbrain dopaminergic neurons have major actions on neurons in which of the following structures?

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A. Striatal neurons only

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B. Striatal neurons and cortical neurons

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C. Striatal neurons, globus pallidus internal segment neurons, and cortical neurons

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D. Striatal neurons, globus pallidus internal segment neurons, globus pallidus external segment neurons, and ...

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