Chapter 14: The Basal Ganglia
The output nuclei of the basal ganglia send projections to the diencephalon and brain stem. Which of the following lists two output nuclei of the basal ganglia?
A. Globus pallidus internal, globus pallidus external
B. Caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens
C. Substantia nigra par reticulata, substantia nigra pars compacta
D. Globus pallidus internal, substantia nigra par reticulata
Which of the following lists components of the same functional loop of the basal ganglia?
A. Frontal eye fields, body of caudate nucleus, ventral pallidum, ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus
B. Orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus
C. Primary motor cortex, putamen, globus pallidus internal segment, medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus
D. Hippocampus, ventral striatum, globus pallidus internal segment, ventral lateral nucleus
Which of the following describes the action of dopamine on striatal neurons of the direct and indirect paths?
A. Facilitates activity, suppresses activity
B. Facilitates activity, no effect on activity
C. Suppresses activity, facilitates activity
D. No effect on activity, facilitates activity
Comment: In Parkinson's disease, the loss of dopamine results in less drive to the direct path, and bradykinesia results.
A person has a small stroke that interrupts axons of the ansa lenticularis. This stroke would produce retrograde degeneration of neurons in which of the following structures?
A. Substantia nigra pars compacta
B. Globus pallidus external segment
C. Globus pallidus internal segment
Comment: The lenticular fasciculus contains axons from the internal segment of the globus pallidus, not the substantial nigra pars reticulata.
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons have major actions on neurons in which of the following structures?
B. Striatal neurons and cortical neurons
C. Striatal neurons, globus pallidus internal segment neurons, and cortical neurons
D. Striatal neurons, globus pallidus internal segment neurons, globus pallidus external segment neurons, and ...