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Chapter 15: The Hypothalamus and Regulation of Bodily Functions

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A person has a pituitary gland tumor. Which of the following brain structures is most likely to become affected as the tumor enlarges?

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A. Oculomotor nerve

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B. Medial orbitofrontal cortex

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C. Mammillary body

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D. Optic chiasm

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Comment: The pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica. The optic chiasm is located directly above the sella turcica. As the tumor enlarges, because it is located with the bony sella, it can only expand dorsally, thereby impinging on the optic chiasm.

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Complete the following analogy using the best choice:

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The parvocellular neurosecretory system is to the magnocellular neurosecretory system, as

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A. the anterior pituitary gland is to the posterior pituitary gland.

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B. the median eminence is to the adrenal gland.

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C. the paraventricular nucleus is to the lateral hypothalamus.

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D. the supraoptic nucleus is to the arcuate nucleus.

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Which of the following statements best describes the median eminence?

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A. It contains the neurovascular contacts of magnocellular neurosecretory neurons.

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B. It contains the neurovascular contacts of parvocellular neurosecretory neurons.

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C. It is where descending hypothalamic pathways course.

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D. It is where ascending serotonergic and noradrenergic systems course from the brain stem to the forebrain.

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Comment: The descending autonomic pathway from the hypothalamus courses through the median forebrain bundle, en route to the brain stem.

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Which of the following statements best describes how the central nervous system innervates smooth muscle and skeletal muscle?

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A. Smooth muscle is innervated by autonomic preganglionic neurons, whereas skeletal muscle is innervated by somatic motor neurons.

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B. Smooth muscle is innervated by autonomic postganglionic neurons, whereas skeletal muscle is innervated by somatic motor neurons.

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C. Preganglionic neurons innervate postganglionic neurons, which innervate smooth muscle; skeletal muscle is innervated by somatic motor neurons.

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D. Preganglionic neurons innervate postganglionic neurons and somatic motor neurons; postganglionic neurons innervate smooth muscle; somatic motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle.

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The components of the autonomic nervous system in the spinal cord are regulated by which of the ...

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