Chapter 4: Functional Anatomy of the Nervous System II: The Brainstem, Cerebellum, Spinal Cord, Peripheral Nervous System, & Supporting Systems
Which of the following best describes the brainstem?
A. The brainstem includes the basal ganglia, midbrain, pons, and medulla.
B. The transmission of the majority of sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and spinal cord (SC) requires relay by brainstem nuclei.
C. Functions of the brainstem include the regulation of sleep, respiration, heart rate, swallowing, and bladder control.
D. Damage to the brainstem by injury or stroke often leads to a loss of consciousness but is not life threatening.
E. The brainstem houses both sensory and motor white matter tracts, and half (6 of 12) of the cranial nerve nuclei.
C. The brainstem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla but not the basal ganglia (although some anatomists may include the diencephalon). Voluntary motor information that controls body movement and sensory information from the body are transmitted via white matter tracts that travel through the brainstem but do not require relay there. The brainstem is required for life-sustaining control of breathing, sleep, and other functions. Damage to the brainstem often lead to loss of consciousness and is often life threatening, especially because of the loss of breathing control. The brainstem houses sensory and motor tracts and the majority (10 of 12) of cranial nerve nuclei.
Which of the following best describes the cerebellum?
A. The cerebellum is connected to the cerebral cortices via the midbrain through 3 paired white matter tracts located in the cerebral peduncles.
B. The main functions for the cerebellum are initiation of movements, action selection, motivation, and reward-based motor learning.
C. The cerebellum contains 4 functional regions called the vestibulocerebellum, spinocerebellum, cerebrocerebellum, and bulbarcerebellum.
D. Damage to the cerebellum usually leads to Parkinson-like symptoms.
E. In the cerebellum, the cerebellar cortex receives the majority of inputs, whereas the majority of outputs occur via the deep cerebellar nuclei.
E. The cerebellum receives inputs from the cerebral cortices via the pons through the cerebellar peduncles. The main functions of the cerebellum are in control and coordination of movement, posture and balance, motor learning, and some cognitive functions. The cerebellum contains only 3 functional regions, as there is no bulbar cerebellum. Damage to the cerebellum leads to loss of coordination of movement, abnormal gait, and inability to judge distances.