Skip to Main Content


Section IV addresses issues that do not fit easily into the categories defined by Sections I to III. Although pain syndromes and the trigeminal nerve (Chapter 13) are sensory (afferent) concerns, these topics deserve a forum separate from discussions of the optic nerve and sensory visual system. Neurovascular and neurocutaneous diseases (Chapter 14) affect both the afferent and efferent visual systems.

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.