This second edition is a proud product of many leading academic physicians and surgeons at numerous medical institutions including Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Jefferson Medical College, University of California at Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, and Washington University School of Medicine. I would like to thank Andrew Moyer, an executive editor, and Christie Naglieri, a senior project development editor at McGraw-Hill both of whom have been tremendously supportive throughout the entire process. I would like to sincerely thank all my section editors: Neeraj Badjatia, MD, MSc, FCCM, Jan Claassen, MD, PhD, FNCS, E. Sander Connolly, Jr., MD, FACS, Arthur L. Day, MD, Joseph Meltzer, MD, Umesh K. Gidwani, MD, MS, FCCP, FCCM, FACC, David B. Seder, MD, FCCP, FCCM, FNCS, Lawrence S. Weisberg, MD, Louis M. Aledort, MD, MACP, Fred Rincon, MD, MSc, FACP, FCCP, FCCM, and Guillermo Linares, MD. From the beginning, my friend and colleague Fred Rincon, MD has been extremely helpful in recruiting authors and once again contributed significantly for this second edition, hence my personal thanks to him. Special thanks to my new section editors Arthur Day, MD and Umesh K. Gidwani, MD, MS, FCCP, FCCM, FACC, both have been very supportive for my project as well. Last but not least, I would like to thank James C. Grotta, MD, who always inspires me, for kindly providing the Foreword.