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In the five years since the first edition of this book, there has been an explosion in new knowledge that directly impacts our care of patients with neurologic disease. New treatments have emerged for epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and migraine. New diseases have been characterized (antibody-mediated syndromes), new criteria for diagnosis of existing diseases have been established (multiple sclerosis), and new categorizations of existing diseases have been created (brain tumors). New clinical trial data has transformed the treatment of acute stroke. New treatments for systemic cancer (immunotherapy and CAR T-cell therapy) have generated a new spectrum of cancer treatment-associated neurologic conditions. All of these exciting updates are included in this second edition, and still this book will likely have aspects that are out-of-date as soon as it goes to press. What other field of medicine has come so far in so short a time, and yet still has so far to go? This constant evolution is one of many aspects that makes neurology such a dynamic, engaging, and meaningful field to study and practice.

When I set out to revise this book to include all of the above developments, some colleagues said, “Well, at least you won’t have to revise the neuroanatomy that doesn’t change.” While neuroanatomy may not change, it is vast and we are constantly learning more through study and practice. I’ve had the great fortune to work with students and residents whose questions have helped me learn more, deepen my understanding, and find new ways to teach. I’ve also been fortunate to receive feedback from readers and colleagues on topics to add, concepts to clarify, and clinical correlations to emphasize. Thanks to the incredible artistry of Craig Durant and his colleagues at Dragonfly Media. This second edition includes many new drawings of the neuroanatomical pathways as well as narrated animations available on the AccessMedicine website.

In working on this second edition, I have been fortunate to receive feedback from subspecialist experts, who helped to make sure I didn’t miss any developments and that my understanding of the latest updates in their fields were correct, precise, and practical. I extend my utmost gratitude to Dr. Jong Woo Lee (Epilepsy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital), Dr. Tracey Milligan (Epilepsy, New York Medical College), Dr. Justin Sattin (Vascular Neurology, University of Wisconsin), Dr. Eli Zimmerman (Vascular Neurology, Vanderbilt University), Dr. Casey Albin (Neuro-Critical Care, Emory), Dr. Arun Venkatesan (Neuro-Infectious Disease, Johns Hopkins), Dr. Pria Anand (Neuro-Infectious Disease, Boston University), Dr. Shamik Bhattacharyya (Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology, BWH), Dr. Emmanuelle Waubant (Multiple Sclerosis, UCSF), Dr. Andrew Stern (Cognitive/Behavioral Neurology, BWH), Dr. Emily Ferenczi (Movement Disorders, BWH), Dr. Joshua Budhu (Neuro-Oncology, BWH/MGH), Dr. Maya Graham (Neuro-Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering), Dr. Rebecca Burch (Headache, BWH), Dr. Christopher Doughty (Neuromuscular, BWH), Dr. Tabby Kennedy (Neuroradiology, University of Wisconsin).

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